Consumption Pattern of Male and Female Headed Households: Evidence for Pakistan


  • Malik Muhammad School of Economics, IIIE, International Islamic University Islamabad, Islamabad
  • Yumna Azeem School of Economics, IIIE, International Islamic University Islamabad, Islamabad
  • Nasim Shah Shirazi Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar
  • Talah Numan Khan Forman Christian College University, Lahore


Consumption pattern; Households, Gender, Regression, Pakistan


This paper aims to investigate the consumption patterns of male
and female-headed households in Pakistan. According to the
findings, both types of households spend about half of their total
expenditure on food and drinks. Furthermore, compared to their
male counterparts, female-headed households spend a higher
percentage of their income on education and healthcare. On the
other hand, male-headed households spend a larger share of their
expenditure on food and drinks and entertainment than femaleheaded households. The budget shares for food and drinks, fuel
and lightning, and clothing and footwear decline, while that of
education, durables, healthcare, and entertainment rise with the
increase in total expenditures in case of both types of households.
The aged heads are found to be more diet and health-conscious;
and thereby, with the increase in age, the expenditures on food
and drinks, healthcare and education increase. Results also reveal
that with the increase in the dependency ratio, the budget share
increases more on food items than non-food items. Finally, with
a higher level of education, the budget shares of education,
entertainment, durables, healthcare, and fuel and lightning